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Geology and Hydrogeology of Santafe de Bogota and its Sabana

Geología e Hidrogeología de Santafé de Bogotá y su Sabana

Author: Alberto Lobo-Guerrero U.

Download complete PDF file of Spanish paper here >
Related publication in English about hydrogeology in Colombia (No. 13) >
Related publication about effects of groundwater overexploitation, Sabana (No. 14) >
Related publication on groundwater level descent, Bogota Basin (No. 17) >
Related publication on the Bogota Fault (No. 23) >
Related publication on geological field trip around Sabana de Bogota (No. 24) >
Related publication on the Sabana Petroleum Basin (No. 25) >
Other downloadable documents related to engineering geology >
Other downloadable documents related to hydrogeology >

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ABSTRACT
The Sabana de Bogotá is a tight, faulted synclinorium, that strikes SSW-NNE, in the center and summit of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. It is composed by Middle Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks: the Villeta Group and Guadalupe, Guaduas, Cacho, Bogotá, Regadera, Usme, Tilatá, Sabana and Tunjuelo Formations.

Formations Tilatá (Pliocene), Sabana (Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene), and Tunjuelo (Pleistocene and Holocene) are lacustrine, fluvial and fluvial-glacial units, deposited in the center and borders of the basin during the past 3.5 million years.

Long synclines occur along the major valleys; and long, thin anticlines in the ridges between them, with thrust faults bordering many of the anticlines, and normal and strike-slip faults cutting the previous. The Falla de Bogotá is a poorly characterized fault, that cuts the western flank of the Bogotá Anticline. A specific and detailed study of this fault is necessary, to establish if the fault is truly active and define its degree of activity.

The Guadalupe Formation is a regional aquifer; discontinuous; free to confined; consolidated; with regular to high permeabilities; with a high saturated thickness; and good to regular water quality. The Tilatá, Sabana and Tunjuelo Formations host regional to subregional aquifers; continuous; free, semi-confined or confined; non consolidated; with thick saturated thicknesses; permeable to semipermeable; with good to regular water quality. Thousands of wells have been drilled in the Sabana and many within the city.

Severe problems of over-exploitation take place today in many parts of the Sabana.
Groundwater potentiometric levels descend at rates between 3 and 5 m/year due to global aggregate extraction that is larger than natural recharge. Water pressure decrease is among the main causes for compactation and deformation of surface layers.

In order to correct over-exploitation of the underground water resource, and to stop the progressive descent of water levels in the basin, it is mandatory to strictly control the excavation of new wells, to monitor extraction from current wells, and to carry out artificial recharge of the aquifers by means of injection wells and spreading basins.

RESUMEN
La Sabana de Bogotá es un apretado sinclinorio fallado con rumbo SSW-NNE en el centro y la cresta de la Cordillera Oriental, en rocas sedimentarias del Cretáceo Medio basta el Cuaternario: el Grupo Villeta y las Formaciones Guadalupe, Guaduas, Cacho, Bogotá, Regadera, Usme, Tilatá, Sabana y Tunjuelo. Las Formaciones Tilatá (Plioceno), Sabana (Plioceno, Pleistoceno y Holoceno), y Tunjuelo (Pleistoceno y Holoceno) son depósitos lagunares, fluviales y fluvio-glaciares depositados en el centro y en los bordes de la cuenca durante los últimos 3.5 millones de años.

Hay largos sinclinales en los valles mayores y largos y estrechos anticlinales en las serranías entre estos, con fallas inversas bordeando muchos de los anticlinales, y fallas normales y de rumbo cortando las anteriores. La Falla de Bogotá es una falla deficientemente caracterizada que corta el flanco occidental del Anticlinal de Bogotá. Es necesario llevar a cabo un estudio específico y detallado de esta falla para determinar si en efecto es activa y su grado de actividad.

La Formación Guadalupe es un acuífero regional; discontínuo; libre a confinado; consolidado; con permeabilidades regulares a altas; con espesor saturado alto; y buena a regular calidad de agua. Las Formaciones Tilatá, Sabana y Tunjuelo contienen acuíferos regionales a subregionales; contínuos; libres, semi-confinados o confinados; no consolidados; con grandes espesores saturados; permeables a semipermeables; con buena a regular calidad de agua.
Hay miles de pozos perforados dentro de la Sabana y numerosos en la propia ciudad.

Actualmente hay severos problemas de sobreexplotación en muchas partes. El nivel potenciométrico del agua subterránea de esta cuenca artesiana está descendiendo a tasas entre 3 y 5 m/año debido a una extracción agregada global mayor a la recarga natural. El descenso en el nivel de presión es una de las causas de los fenómenos de compactación y hundimiento que se observan en las capas superficiales.

Para corregir la sobreexplotación del recurso hídrico subterráneo y detener el progresivo descenso del nivel potenciométrico en la cuenca es indispensable controlar estrictamente la apertura de nuevos pozos, los caudales extraídos por los pozos existentes, y recurrir a la recarga artificial de los acuíferos mediante pozos de inyección y dársenas de esparcimiento.

 
 
Download complete PDF file of Spanish paper here >
Related publication in English about hydrogeology in Colombia (No. 13) >
Related publication about effects of groundwater overexploitation, Sabana (No. 14) >
Related publication on groundwater level descent, Bogota Basin (No. 17) >
Related publication on the Bogota Fault (No. 23) >
Related publication on geological field trip around Sabana de Bogota (No. 24) >
Related publication on the Sabana Petroleum Basin (No. 25) >
Other downloadable documents related to engineering geology >
Other downloadable documents related to hydrogeology >
 
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